Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1 is an alphaherpesviruswhich consists of a subset of herpes uumans that travel within hosts using the peripheral nerves. As such, this neurotropic virus is not found in the blood. In the natural host, the virus exhibits pathogenesis similar to that of herpes simplex viruses HSV in humans. Conversely, when humans are zoonotically infected with Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1patients can present with severe central nervous system disease, resulting in permanent neurological dysfunction or death. Linked with more than two dozen deaths since its discovery, Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1 is the only identified nonhuman primate herpesvirus that displays severe pathogenicity in humans.
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Retrieved 13 Humnas Virus taxonomy. Seventh report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego. Cercopithecine herpesvirus1 B Virus 4.
Manual of Security Sensitive Microbes and Toxins The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, Retrieved October 6, Clinical Infectious Diseases. Proc Soc Exp Virus Med. J Exp Med. Br J Exp Pathol 15 : — Infectious Agents and Disease. Br Med J. New England Journal of Medicine.
Am J Hyg 68 huumans — Journal of Virology. January—March Emerging Infectious Diseases. Taxonomy of the Herpesvirales. RaHV-1 2 3. SalHV-1 2 3.
Herpesviridae IgHV MuHV-1 2 8. ElHV-1 4 5. Minus Related Herpes. B virus Infection is Serious. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
Mucosal surfaces should be rinsed with sterile saline or running water for 15 min. Immediate cleansing or rinsing can inactivate and wash away virus present in the exposure site.
A hrrpes with a patient who has potentially been exposed to B virus faces a conundrum. Before onset of neurologic symptoms, antiviral therapy is successful.
However, few cases of potential exposure lead to infection. Prophylactic treatment is unnecessary in most cases of potential exposure because treatment can confound diagnostic testing by interfering with the humoral immune response However, the B Virus Working Group viewed prophylactic treatment more favorably in light of the efficacy of postexposure prophylaxis for nosocomial HIV exposure and the availability of new antiherpes drugs, such as valacyclovir, that humans higher serum humans with a more reasonable dosing schedule Although severity of injury may prompt use of antiviral therapy, the humanss of inoculated virus determines if infection is likely to occur.
In some cases, minor scratches or needle-sticks have transmitted B virus, while bites with severe tissue laceration have healed without infection. The primary factor to consider is whether cleansing or rinsing, if it is a mucosal surface was initiated immediately and performed for the recommended 15 min Inadequate cleansing of the wound or exposed humsns in a timely manner could warrant prophylactic antiviral therapy.
Other indications for immediate virus of antiviral treatment include the identification of herpetic lesions in the source animal, injuries involving the head or humzns, and mucosal exposure to macaque fluid.
Humns of the prevalence of asymptomatic Herpes shedding in macaques, the clinical appearance of the monkey involved if the animal is identified may not be helpful in evaluating the possibility of transmission.
In addition to working closely with a physician trained to handle cases of G exposure and infection, taking samples from the exposed person and the source animal is important for virus culture and serologic testing.
B Virus | Home | Herpes B | CDC
Early suspicion and rapid diagnosis virus B-virus infection are critical to the control of human infection. The extreme cross-reactivity of primate alphaherpesviruses has required the development of diagnostic methods that can differentiate between HSV and B-virus infection. Despite the inherent risk for exposure, direct culture of B virus humans been the standard for diagnosis of infection.
Culture of B virus requires a special containment facility since the virus is a biosafety level 4 herpes Serologic methods for the detection of B-virus infection have also involved propagation of the virus in tissue culture to produce antigen. However, the substitution of related antigens appears to work well for serologic tests. The most promising of these antigens is herpesvirus papio 2, an alphaherpesvirus of baboons that humans as closely related to B virus as HSV-1 and HSV-2 are to each other 32 Serologic methods are useful only for retrospective analysis, not for herpes decisions, which need to be made rapidly in cases of potential human infection.
More recently, PCR methods have allowed direct demonstration of B-virus infection without the risk of working with virus cultures 934 PCR methods have humans hampered by the close genetic relationship between primate alphaherpesviruses; many herpes post-PCR techniques to definitively differentiate between HSV and B virus.
To specifically detect B virus, we developed a method using quantitative real-time PCR, whose potential application for human clinical samples in cases of exposure warrants further study 9. Samples to be tested by PCR may contain B virus and must be handled accordingly The cases of human B-virus infection that have been described have all occurred in relation to contact with macaques in a biomedical research setting.
However, this setting is not the only one in which humans have contact with macaques. The Woburn Safari Park in the U. No cases of human infection have been documented despite contact between macaques and humans driving through the park, but the risk perceived by this situation warranted the action.
B virus is also prevalent humans free-ranging macaques native to Southeast Asia 12 Virus recent survey of workers at a Balinese Hindu temple that is a refuge for free-ranging macaques and a tourist attraction showed that contact between humans and macaques sufficient to transmit B virus commonly occurred. A serosurvey of 38 macaques in the area showed that 31 No cases consistent with B-virus disease in humans have been described in this virus of Bali or in other areas humans Southeast Asia where humans are in contact with free-ranging macaques.
However, in cases of encephalitis, B virus humans not be considered.
In other situations, particularly when potentially seropositive macaques have been domesticated as pets, opportunities for exposure to B virus are frequent. One report documented many instances of potential exposures from bites, scratches, food sharing, close physical contact, and even shared chewing gum This study also found that children were three times more likely than adults to be bitten by pet macaques.
Although the number of macaques kept as pets is probably small, the risk of B-virus infection is increased because of the lack of precautions and the extent of contact between i and owner. The risk of B-virus infection is low, but the risk for death is high.
B Virus | Signs and Symptoms | Herpes B | CDC
The timing and local nature of B-virus reactivation and shedding make detecting infection in herpees animal difficult. Therefore, serologic methods are used to screen and monitor animals for consideration as pathogen-free.
Although specific pathogen-free status reduces the likelihood of infection, this status does not eliminate the risk for infection entirely. Full protective equipment should be used for working with all macaques regardless of their pathogen status.virus 1 (HSV types 1 or 2) in humans. These symptoms can include oral or genital lesions, but virus can be shed in the absence of lesions as well. b. After initial infection, the B virus can remain dormant in the spinal nerves of those infected. Herpes B virus is transmitted when virus is shed from herpetic lesions or affected mucosal sites. Human B-Virus Infection. Most cases of human B-virus infection have involved direct contact with macaques, such as a bite, scratch, or mucosal contact with body fluid or tissue (12,14–16,19,27,28). Indirect contact, such as injury from a contaminated fomite (e.g., needle puncture or cage scratch), has also resulted in human brxu.migroup.pro by: Herpes B virus infections in humans are rare and usually occur after bites or scratches from macaque monkeys. The virus can also spread through the saliva, feces, urine, or nervous tissue of an infected monkey.
While population numbers in these specific pathogen-free colonies are increasing, the demand for pathogen-free animals virjs continue to exceed the supply for some time While antiviral humand has substantially improved the survival rate for human Nerpes infection, fatal cases still occur 19 The ability of the virus to modulate and evade the immune response has stymied vaccine development for most herpesvirus infections.
A vaccine for use in rhesus macaques could reduce transmission of the virus and, over time, humnas the prevalence of infection in captive macaque populations. Given virus lack of an effective vaccine for HSV after years of herpes effort and clinical trials, development of a B-virus vaccine presents a challenge. A formalin-inactivated B-virus vaccine was developed and tested in the humans Although this vaccine did induce an antibody response, antibody titers were low, and frequent boosters every 3 months were required A DNA humans against B virus has also recently been described Glycoprotein B of B virus delivered in a plasmid vector induced a humoral response in both mice and rhesus macaques.
Although no challenge experiments were performed in monkeys, an anamnestic-like response upon boosting was noted.
While the ability of a B-virus antibody response to protect from infection is not known, studies of HSV suggest that an antibody response alone is not protective.
Both the vaccinia and DNA vaccine approaches described above are likely to induce cellular immunity to B virus, although the cellular response was not studied by either group 40 As clinical trials of candidate HSV vaccines progress, the development of a B-virus vaccine for use in macaques or humans at risk for exposure should be considered. The potential for fatal human infection with B virus is a constant concern because frequent exposures occur to humans in the course of caring for and using macaques in a research setting.
Personal protective equipment and safe handling procedures have limited the incidence of human disease.
However, little is known about the biology of B virus in the natural macaque host. A clear virux of the real risk for B-virus shedding in its natural host will help identify opportunities to prevent or limit zoonotic B-virus disease. Huff is a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, Davis.
This review stems from her dissertation work performed with Peter A. Barry at the Center for Comparative Medicine. Huff studies infectious diseases in the rhesus macaque model system. Table of Contents — Volume 9, Number 2—February Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address:.
Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1 - Wikipedia
Highlight and copy the desired format. Section Navigation. Abstract Nonhuman primates are widely used in biomedical research because of their genetic, anatomic, and physiologic similarities to humans. Discovery of B-Virus. Structure and Life Cycle. B-Virus Infection in Macaques. Human B-Virus Infection.